Do not refer to any names, unless you are positive that they are generally well-known. The purpose of the background, as the word itself indicates, is to provide the reader with a background to the study, and hence to smoothly lead into a description of the methods employed in the investigation.
Only a reader with a very specific interest in the subject of the paper, and a need to understand it thoroughly, will read the entire paper. In conclusion, you discuss the importance and relevance of your study, the meaning of the outcomes of your research.
Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them.
Although the primary target of this paper is the young researcher, it is likely that authors with all levels of experience will find at least a few ideas that may be useful in their future efforts.
This is unfortunate because the reader is interested in the paper because of its findings, and not because of its background.
This is especially the case when it is the first time when you are facing a task of writing a certain kind of paper — for example, a dissertation. Here, you take the most important parts of your whole paper, including the results, and condense them into one piece which may be as long as a whole page.
Abstracts are typically sectioned logically as an overview of what appears in the paper, with any of the following subheadings: These include two major effects. Abstracts that comprise one paragraph no explicit subheadings are often called unstructured abstracts by publishers.
If you were supplied with any specific format guidelines to follow in your abstract, make sure you follow them to the letter. If a title interests them, they glance through the abstract of that paper. If you are writing an informative abstract, you are to describe the results of your research.
And so, this conclusion is the closing part of your abstract.
There are some situations, perhaps, where this may be justified. This misleads some students into writing the abstract prior to writing the paper properly. Sometimes, you can combine the problem description with the explanation of your motivation, but this is a rare occasion.
Some journals include additional sections, such as Objectives between Background and Writing an abstract for a term paper and Limitations at the end of the abstract.
The results section should therefore be the longest part of the abstract and should contain as much detail about the findings as the journal word count permits. The usual sections defined in a structured abstract are the Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions; other headings with similar meanings may be used eg, Introduction in place of Background or Findings in place of Results.
Then, you state your main argument. An abstract, on the contrary, is technically a separate article that summarizes the whole body of the text, including the outcome.
In the rest of this paper, issues related to the contents of each section will be examined in turn. And then you are also asked to write an abstract, so you get two tasks instead of one.
These are listed in Table 1. You briefly describe what you have found out in the course of your research and how your argument was supported or not. Table 3 lists important questions to which the methods section should provide brief answers.
Background This section should be the shortest part of the abstract and should very briefly outline the following information: Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. As we know, we begin the paper with an introduction.
The research focus i. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members.
So, when writing your abstract, keep in mind the following questions: How did I research the issue? Here is a step-by-step guide for writing an abstract of your academic paper: In articles that follow the IMRAD pattern especially original researchbut sometimes other article typesstructured abstract style is the norm.
It is not intended to be as exhaustive a summary as the text abstract, rather it is supposed to indicate the type, scope, and technical coverage of the article at a glance. Presenting the Problem The first part of a well-written abstract should state the problem or issue being addressed by your research.
This is because readers who peruse an abstract do so to learn about the findings of the study. What is already known about the subject, related to the paper in question What is not known about the subject and hence what the study intended to examine or what the paper seeks to present In most cases, the background can be framed in just 2—3 sentences, with each sentence describing a different aspect of the information referred to above; sometimes, even a single sentence may suffice.
While some paragraphs of the paper itself are allowed to be intentionally vague — to engage the reader, abstract works differently — it should inform the reader exactly what they are to deal with, should they choose to read the actual paper.
It is generally agreed that one must not base reference citations on the abstract alone, but the content of an entire paper.
An academic abstract typically outlines four elements relevant to the completed work:For the purposes of writing an abstract, try grouping the main ideas of each section of the paper into a single sentence.
Practice grouping ideas using webbing or color coding. For a scientific paper, you may have sections.
First, write your paper. While the abstract will be at the beginning of your paper, it should be the last section that you write. Once you have completed the final draft of your psychology paper, use it as a guide for writing your abstract.
Begin your abstract on a new page and place your running head and the page number 2 in the top right-hand corner. To be honest, in such kind of work as term paper writing, you do not need to have the abstract as a must.
It is not that big to provide it with the abstract. Usually, abstract is written for the complicated works like dissertations or research papers. How to Write an Abstract For an Academic Paper Whenever you are given a task to write a scientific or academic paper, you are also often expected to write an abstract.
This is especially the case when it is the first time when you are facing a task of writing a certain kind of paper – for example, a dissertation. Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture.
This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract. An abstract is a tightly written summary of a completed research paper or project.
Abstracts help readers to focus on the most important points of a paper or project.Download