Computer graphics notes

If we consider the vertices of the polygon one-at-a-time and keep track of when the edges of the polygon cross the plane, the algorithm is actually quite simple.

Similarly, the dot product for the other planes are as follows: The algorithm then iterates through the vertices of the polygon, and has the following steps: The only problem is that the edges are defined by two points, and so we must retain two dot products to make our comparisons.

Clipping to a Convex Polyhedra The three-dimensional analog of a polygon is a polyhedron e. Consider the figure below, where we represent the top face of the image space cube.

Clipping to the Viewing Pyramid The viewing pyramid is a convex polyhedron - as is the image-space cube. The viewing transform produces this second case frequently, for when a polygon is behind the viewer, the viewing transform produces points with a negative w coordinate. Here line segments are represented in the same form as in three-dimensional coordinates - that is, represents a line in projective space, where and are points in four-dimensional projective space.

In this case, a line in projective space simply projects to a line in three-dimensional space. Clipping in Projective Space If we are careful, we can also clip in projective space.

We must test to see if the last line segment the one between and crosses the plane, and if so, insert the intersection point into the in list.

The algorithm for clipping a single convex polygon against a plane can be utilized to clip a polygon against multiple planes of these regions. If we examine this closely, we see that the quantities make sense.

We must define the planes so that the normal vectors point toward the inside of the polyhedron. It is useful to see how the clipping operation simplifies when we clip against the image space cube. This is illustrated in the figure below, where the two w coordinates are assumed positive.

The planes that bound the truncated viewing pyramid are defined by the following: There is one additional case that should be considered. We simply clip against the planes one at a time, taking the output polygon of one clipping step as the input polygon to the next step.

A second example is given by the following figure. The vertex is discarded. This is the reason for the last four statements of the algorithm. This algorithm is guaranteed to work with convex polygons only - non-convex polygons can cause the algorithm to produce some false edges.

So these lines are produced whenever a polygon has vertices both in front of, and behind the viewer. The algorithm is illustrated in the following pseudo-code algorithm.

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If, at any step, the output polygon is empty, then the process terminates. Clipping is terminated if all points are clipped out at any Computer graphics notes stage. This algorithm can be implemented with a single loop through the points of the polygon.

But we can still clip in projective space. The top plane is defined by the point and the normal vector. A convex polyhedron can be defined by a finite set of bounding planes and we can clip against the polyhedron by clipping against each plane in turn and using the output polygon of one step as the input polygon to the next.

When we write the equationlies on the line between and whenand indeed the values are numbers between zero and one.Computer graphics are used to simplify this process. Various algorithms and techniques are used to generate graphics in computers. This tutorial will help you understand how all these are processed by the computer to give a rich visual experience to the user.

In computer graphics, a hardware or software implementation of a digital differential analyzer (DDA) is used for linear interpolation of variables over an interval between start and end point.

DDAs are used for rasterization of lines, triangles and polygons. Check Out Computer Graphics Notes Pdf Free Download. You can Check Computer Graphics of Subjects Study Materials and Lecture Notes with Syllabus and Important Questions Below.

We provide Computer Graphics study materials to student with free of cost and it can download easily and without registration need. Computer Graphics & Animation Computer animation is the use of computers to create animations.

There are a few different ways to make computer animations. 6/18/01 Page 2 These notes cover topics in an introductory computer graphics course that emphasizes graphics programming, and is intended for undergraduate students who have a sound background in.

The primary use of clipping in computer graphics is to remove objects, lines or line segments that are outside the viewing volume. The viewing transformation is insensitive to the position of points relative to the viewing volume - especially those points behind the viewer - and it is necessary to remove these points before generating the view.

Computer graphics notes
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