In fact, the diversity in wars and their outcomes is a reasonable and important finding. When the interests at stake lead to war but only a few actors of similar rank and type are involved, compromise can be outlined, negotiated, and monitored. Among the 55 war crises we probe, 69 percent of the wars 38 cases are regular wars and 31 percent of them 17 cases are IWCs.
The COC thesis emerged as a paradigmatic challenge for the post-Cold War era but still remains questionable regarding its academic contribution to the explanation of war and peace in world politics. The expansion of new research fields must not come at the expense of a re-examination of classical topics — conflicts, crises, and wars.
By contrast, COC wars are stipulated to be the harshest confrontations involving the most fundamental and non-tangible stakes and complex structures. As late as —, he still defended these ideas, in an unfinished manuscript, which he called Tailism and the Dialectic.
The conflict over territory as a core interest often leads to war but unlike religion and fundamental beliefs territory can be divided. A due respect must be paid to those who left behind the comfort of their beds and fought in cold and heat. After this time, historical realism begins to sicken and lose its concern with social life as inescapably historical.
War complexity integrates two dimensions: How do different types of war score on the complexity index? The findings presented in Table 4 show that indeed regular wars and IWCs differ and that postulate 4 is supported in the former but not in the latter.
Territorial wars may involve an extended alliance structure and many adversaries but often involve two neighbor states. Compromise in these wars is unlikely due to the zero-sum game between rival civilizations, their competing values, and clashing norms.
Consequently, our third postulate claims that ethnic confrontations that escalate to full-scale war are relatively rare and have a logic that is separate from other wars. A COC is therefore not a good sign when accommodation in war is a desirable ending.
Then we explore the correspondence between overall complexity and outcomes, anticipating that higher complexity will be coupled with less accommodation in war crises.
When we designate structure complexity, we focus on the number and type of actors involved and in their power rank. War crises with higher complexity — in terms of issue, structure, and overall complexity — are more likely to end with non-accommodative outcomes than cases with lower complexity.The analysis of complexity is based on three levels within this range: 1.
low (overall complexity lower than 9); 2. mid-level (overall complexity of ); and 3. high (overall complexity of 16 or more). 53 What do we learn from these scores about war complexity and outcome?
The results do not support postulate 4 for both regular wars and IWCs. In recent years, groundbreaking work has been conducted on the literary culture of the Second World War, the connections between life-writing, trauma theory and women’s responses to war, and on literary and visual representations of the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.
For Europe World War I may have been more decisive than World War II, which was a radical continuation in many ways of the first war. For the United States World War II was more significant, both in its extent and in its consequences.
World War II Literature John F.
Hanley (Goodreads Author) avg rating — 84 ratings. The Comfort Women: Japan's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War by. George L. Hicks. avg rating —. "Mr. Lukacs is one of the more incisive historians of the 20th century, and especially of the tangled events leading to World War II."-Joseph C.
Goulden, Washington Times -- Joseph C. Goulden Washington Times "John Lukacs presents an original and complex analysis. György Lukács (UK: / Lukács and his wife were not permitted to leave the Soviet Union until after the Second World War.
During Stalin's Great Purge, Lukacs was sent to internal exile in Tashkent for a time, he privileges their authorial approach.Download